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  • HMOs

    Human milk oligosaccharides(HMOs), are diversely-structured carbohydrates or glycoconjugates existing in human milk in high concentrations. They are the third most plentiful solid ingredient in human milk and the second only to fat and lactose. In natural human milk, fucosyllactose (FL) accounts for above 30% or so of the ingredients of HMOs.

    Sialylated HMOs, accounting for 12%-14% of the total of HMOs, are mainly 6'-Sialyllactose (6'-SL). 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) is the most abundant HMO in human milk and the most adequate HMO for scientific research. It supports the healthy development of babies at their earliest stage of life.


    • HMOs contain prebiotics that regulate the gut flora. As the substrate for the infantile intestinal microorganisms to develop, HMOs have been shown in some study to make selective contributions to the growth of intestinal microorganisms by facilitating probiotics in competing with harmful bacteria for limited nutrition, therefore inhibiting the growth of the latter to some extent.
    • As immune modulators, HMOs can balance an inflammatory response by regulating the interaction between immune cells through surface-expressed acceptor molecules [1].
    • HMOs do good to brain and neural development, for they are the source of sialic acid, a nutrient of essential importance to formation of gangliosides and myelin sheaths, neuronal growth, synaptic junction and memory formation.
    • Some HMOs can work as anti-adhesive agents and soluble decoy receptors to directly reduce the risk of microbial infection by preventing pathogens adhesion
    • HMOs do good to intestinal development. As prebiotics or anti-adhesive antimicrobials, they interfere with the interaction between the host and the microbe. Besides, they can directly intervene in the response of their host, the enterocytes, and therefore induce their differentiation and apoptosis.